" ^ Pritsak 1991, pp. 52–53. ^ Vranoussi Erasmia, "The terms Albanoi and Arvanitai and the first mention of the homonym people of the Balkans in the 11th century sources", Balkanika Symmikta, 1970, 2, p. 207 – 228. Archived 12 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine For the meanings of Albanus, Albani, Albains etc., see pp 226–228, with footnotes to the lexicons Du Gange, Glossarium mediae el infimae Latinitatis, edition 1883, vol. 1, pp. 162 – 163, J. Niermeyer, Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon minus, Leiden 1960, pp.
Alban could be a plural of alb- arb-, denoting the inhabitants of the plains (ÇABEJ 1976). The name passed over the boundaries of the Illyrian tribe in central Albania, and was generalised for all the Albanians. They called themselves arbënesh, arbëresh, the country Arbëni, Arbëri, and the language arbëneshe, arbëreshe. In the foreign languages, the Middle Ages denominations of these names survived, but for the Albanians they were substituted by shqiptarë, Shqipëri and shqipe. The primary root is the adverb shqip, meaning "clearly, intelligibly".
 After the death of Stefan Dušan in 1355 the Serbian Empire disintegrated, and Karl Thopia captured Durrës while the Muzaka family of Berat regained control over parts of southeastern Albania and over Kastoria that Andrea II captured from Prince Marko after the Battle of Marica in 1371.  The League of Lezhë in 1448–1468. The kingdom reinforced the influence of Catholicism and the conversion to its rite, not only in the region of Durrës but in other parts of the country.
Albanians were recruited all over Europe as a light cavalry known as stratioti. The stratioti were pioneers of light cavalry tactics during the 15th century. In the early 16th century heavy cavalry in the European armies was principally remodeled after Albanian stradioti of the Venetian army, Hungarian hussars and German mercenary cavalry units (Schwarzreitern).  Ottoman Empire Prior to the Ottoman conquest of Albania, the political situation of the Albanian people was characterised by a fragmented conglomeration of scattered kingdoms and principalities such as the Principalities of Arbanon, Kastrioti and Thopia. Before and after the fall of Constantinople, the Ottoman Empire continued an extended period of conquest and expansion with its borders going deep into the Southeast Europe.
It is worth mentioning that in these multi-lingual environments, the Albanian patois retains original Balkan features. " ^ Vickers 2011, pp. 17–24; Giakoumis 2010, pp. 87–88; Myhill 2006, p. 232; Koti 2010, pp. 16–17; Ramet 1998, pp. 203–204; Skendi 1956, pp. 321–323. ^ a b c Clayer, Nathalie (2010). "Albania". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Stewart, Devin J. (eds. Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830. ^ Malcolm, Noel (2020). Rebels, Believers, Survivors: Studies in the History of the Albanians. Oxford University Press. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-19-259923-0. ^ Faroqhi, Suraiya; McGowan, Bruce; Pamuk, Sevket (1997).
The Shkumbin River in central Albania, flowing past Elbasan into the Adriatic, forms the approximate boundary between the two dialect regions. ^ UNESCO. "UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger". UNESCO. ^ Handbook of ethnotherapies (Christine E. Gottschalk-Batschkus; Joy C. Green ed. BoD – Books on Demand, 2002.
2002. p. 110. ISBN 978-3-8311-4184-5. ^ Sarah G. Thomason (23 April 2015). Endangered Languages Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics. Cambridge University Press, 2015. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-521-86573-9. ^ "Press release of the Adult Education Survey" (PDF). Albanian Institute of Statistics. 10 May 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. ^ Hock & Joseph 1996, p. 54. ^ Winnifrith 2020, pp.
 Since that time all churches north of the Shkumbin river were Catholic and under the jurisdiction of the Pope.  Various reasons have been put forward for the spread of Catholicism among northern Albanians. Traditional affiliation with the Latin rite and Catholic missions in central Albania in the 12th century fortified the Catholic Church against Orthodoxy, while local leaders found an ally in Catholicism against Slavic Orthodox states.   After the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, Christianity began to be overtaken by Islam, and Catholicism and Orthodoxy continued to be practiced with less frequency.
 Europe Albanians in Vienna celebrating the declaration of independence of Kosovo. During the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries, the conflicts in the Balkans and the Kosovo War set in motion large population movements of Albanians to Central, Western and Northern Europe.  The gradual collapse of communism in Albania triggered as well a new wave of migration and contributed to the emergence of a new diaspora, mainly in Southern Europe, in such countries as Greece and Italy.
 Around 1230 the two main centers of Albanian settlements were around Devoll river in what is now central Albania and the other around the region known as Arbanon.  Albanian presence in Croatia can be traced back to the beginning of the Late Middle Ages.  In this period, there was a significant Albanian community in Ragusa with a number of families of Albanian origin inclusively the Sorgo family who came from the Cape of Rodon in central Albania, across Kotor in eastern Montenegro, to Dalmatia.  By the 13th century, Albanian merchants were trading directly with the peoples of the Republic of Ragusa in Dalmatia which increased familiarity between Albanians and Ragusans.